Acute Compartment Syndrome
(ACS; Compartment Syndrome, Acute; Volkmann’s Ischemia)
|Compartment Syndrome in Lower Leg|
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- Pre-existing condition that could lead to fatal bleeding in cases of trauma, such as:
- Taking anticoagulants
- Having a bleeding disorder ( hemophilia )
- Participation in certain sports (eg, football)
- Bandages or casts that are worn too tightly or worn for too long
- Recent injury to the area
- Severe pain
- Feeling of tightness or fullness of muscles
- Swollen, shiny skin over affected area
- Sensation problems
- Tests to measure pressure inside the compartments (eg, slit catheter, tonometer)
- Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
- MRI scan
- CT scan
- Reflex testing
- Range-of-motion testing
- Other tests to identify what compartment is affected
- Lab tests to determine the extent of damage, such as:
- Basic metabolic panel (BMP)
- Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Wearing proper equipment when playing sports
- Making sure that your medical records mention any use of anticoagulants or blood diseases
- Being aware of the risk of ACS when you are wearing a bandage or cast
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/
National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases http://www.niams.nih.gov/
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org/
Physical Therapy Canada http://www.physicaltherapy.ca/
Basic metabolic panel. Lab Tests Online website. Available at: http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/bmp/glance.html . Updated September 6, 2012. Accessed October 23, 2012.
Cascio B, Wilckens J, Ain M, Toulson C, Frassica F. Documentation of acute compartment syndrome at an academic health-care center. J Bone Joint Surg. 2005;87:346-350.
Compartment syndrome. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00204#Cause . Updated October 2009. Accessed October 24, 2012.
Compartment syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated May 24, 2011. Accessed October 24, 2012.
Compartment syndrome, acute. EBSCO Publishing Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/pointOfCare/nrc-about . Updated August 10, 2012. Accessed October 24, 2012.
Complete blood count. Lab Tests Online website. Available at: http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/cbc/test.html . Updated October 11, 2012. Accessed October 24, 2012.
Comprehensive metabolic panel. Lab Tests Online website. Available at: http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/cmp/glance.html . Updated September 6, 2012. Accessed October 24, 2012.
Erdos J, Dlaska C, Szatmary P, et al. Acute compartment syndrome in children: a case series in 24 patients and review of the literature. Int Orthop . 2011 Apr;35(4):569-75.
Rorabeck CH, Macnab I. The pathophysiology of the anterior tibial compartmental syndrome. Clin Orthop . 1975;52-57.
Whitesides TE, Heckman MM. Acute compartment syndrome: Update on diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1996;4:209-218.
- Reviewer: John C. Keel, MD
- Review Date: 10/2012 -
- Update Date: 10/31/2012 -